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更新时间:2005/1/13 作者:许文龙

   英语中表示强调的方法绚丽多彩。据笔者不完全统计,光在中学英语课本中,就有十几种。现归纳介绍如 下,以供教学参考。
    一、通过各种不同的词汇和词组手段来表示强调。
    1. 用强调性形容词表示强调,常见的形容词有absolute,certain,clear,great,perfect,real,total,ver y等。如:
    l have absolute trust in my doctor.我完全信任我的医生。
    This is real gold,not cheap yellow metal.这是真金,不是低廉的黄色金属。
    They built a great number of houses.他们盖了一大批房屋。
    [注意]very作形容词时,须与the,this,that或物主代词等连用。如:
    He devoted his time and his very life to the four modernizations.
    2. 用强调性副词或相当于副词的词组表示强调。常见的有absolutely,certainly, clearly,completely, greatly,indeed,just perfectly,really,quite,right,totally,very,even等。如:
    A friend in need is a friend indeed.(Jlll.P.1)
    But perhaps, just this once,we'll use what we have to get a new dress for you.(Sl.P.61)
    The arrow whistled through the air,struck the apple right inthe centre and carried it off th e boy's head.箭呼啸着穿过空中,射在苹果的正中,把它从孩子的头上带走了。
    l can't even remember the name of that old friend of mine.我甚至连那位老朋友的名字都不记得了 。
    “You're both completely wrong,”he said.(Sl.P.27)
    Chinese is quite a difficult language for me.(JlV.P.95)
    [注意]most作副词用,也可表示强调。前面不可加定冠词,但可加不定冠词。如:
    lt is most beautiful! (Sl.P.102)
    This is a most interesting TV play.这是一部非常有趣的电视剧。
    3.在形容词和副词比较级前加far,even,much,still,a lot,a greatdeal等;最高级前加by far,even,muc h,by no means等来表示强调。如:
    A hare runs much faster than a tortoise.
    Millions of other stars are even bigger and brighter than thesun.(JlV.P.117)
    Grace is tall, but Catherine is still taller.格雷斯个子很高,但是凯瑟林个子更高。
    The pacific is by far the largest ocean and coversalmost exactly half of the total ocean are a.(Sl.P.268)
    Even the blindest person must see that this elephant isn't like any of the things you name.( Sl.P.27)
    4.on earth,in the world等用于疑问代词、疑问副词、否定词或最高级后,表示强调。如:
    “What on earth are you doing here?”a bird shouted at him.(JV.P.3)
    No force on earth can hold back the wheel of history.没有任何力量能够阻止历史车轮的前进。
    That is the funniest thing on earth.那是世上最滑稽的事情了。
    Where in the world did you go just now ?你刚才究竟去哪儿了?
    l had nothing in the world but a million-pound note.(Sl.P.173)
    5. 用ever或在wh-词之后,用ever表示强调。如:
    War and peace is the best novel that l have ever read.《战争与和平》是我曾经读过的最好小说。
    Whoever arrives early must wait. 谁早到谁就得等着。
    Do whatever you like. 你爱干什么就干什么。
    Wherever he may be,he will be happy. 他无论在什么地方都快乐。
    Whenever l may go,l find him at his books. 我无论什么时候去,总看见他在读书。
    6. 在否定句中用at all,in the least表示强调。如:
    He is not at all clever. 他一点也不聪明。
    She's not in the least angry with me. 她一点也不生我的气。
    7. 用let alone,not to speak of,to say nothing of,not to mention等表示强调。如:
    He knows French and Russian,let alone English.他懂法语和俄语,更不用说英语了。
    lt will take a long time,not to speak of the huge expenseinvolved.要花很多时间,更不必说要花 许多钱了。
    8. 用the last+名词,表示强烈的否定。如:
    …but that was the last time the last happy evening for the next ten years.(Sl.P.64)……可是 那是最后一次,……在以后的十年中再也没有那么愉快的夜晚了。
    The last thing that a lazy student wishes is examination.懒学生最不愿意的事情就是考试。
    9. 在物主代词后加own表示强调。如:
    No,and l won't believe you until l've seen you in the jar withmy own eyes.(JV.P.131)
    For, you see,they trusted their own sense of touch very much.(Sl.P.27)
    二、通过语法手段来表示强调。
    1. 用助动词do,does或did来强调谓语动词。如
    lf you do know,answer in a loud enough voice so that all heclass may hear. (JVl.P.81)
    But the family did manage to send him to a technical school and later to the Federal lnstitu te of Technology in Switzerland.(Sll.P.92)
    2. 祈使句开头用主语you,表示强调。如:
    “You broke the law,”said Gessler. (Sl.P.280)
    You mind your own business. 你少管闲事。
    Don't Yor go away,Tom!汤姆,你可去不得!
    3. 用反身代词或“抽象名词+itself”,表示强调如:
    One day the woman learned that Liszt himself was in town.(JlV.P.107)(作主语的同位语,以示强 调)
    Finally she went to see the famous man himself.(JlV.P.107)(作宾语的同位语,以示强调)
    She is kindness itself.她仁慈之极。
    4. 用修辞疑问句,表示强调。
    疑问句转用作加强语气的陈述句时,即可称为修辞性疑问句。需要注意的是:肯定的修辞疑问句其意义相 等于强调的否定陈述句;而否定的修辞疑问句其意义则相等于强调的肯定陈述句。如:
    Who doesn't know the sun rises in the east?(=Everyone knows…)谁不知道太阳从东方升起?
    lsn't the cloth magnificent?(Sl.P.118)(=How magnificent thecloth is!)这块布料多华丽啊!
    三、用lt is/wad…that/who…句型表示强调。
    被强调的部分放在is/was的后面,如被强调的是人,则后面用who或that,如被强调的是物或其他情况, 则用that。如:
    lt is not only blind men who make such stupid mistakes. (Sl.P.28)
    lt was the goat's eyes that he had seen in the darkness. (Sl.P.212)
    lt was the first time in history that two Nobel prizes had beengiven to the same person. 同一 个人获得两次诺贝尔奖金在历史上是第一。
    四、用改变语序的方式来表示强调。
    (1)把副词、副词短语、状语从句移至句首,以示强调。如:
    Never will China be the first to use nuclear weapons. 中国决不会第一个使用核武器。
    Only in this way can we catch up with and surpass theworld's advanced level of science and technology. 只有这样,我们才能赶上并超过世界先进科技水平。
    Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happilyback to work.(Sll.P.105)
    (2)把宾语移至句首,以示强调。如:
    This they kept for themselves. (Sl.P.101)
    What he could,he took. 他拿了他能拿的东西。
    (3)把表语移至句首,以示强调。如:
    Such was Albert Einstein,a simple man of great achievements.(Sll.P.107)
    Happy are those who are content. 知足常乐。
    The hope of the city is the new mayor. 新市长是该市的希望。
    五、用重叠的词表示强调。
    She went on cutting and cutting until she came to the end of the brook. (Sl.P.136)
    She rubbed and rubbed until long after Wilma had fallen aleep.(Slll.P35)
    Then they had read some of the chapters again and again.(Slll.P.105)
    有时,用重叠的同义词也可以表示强调。如:
    Science serves the people first and foremost. 科学首先要为人民服务。
    六、用大写字母表示强调。如:
    Why,the “blackboard”was NOT a blackboard.(Jlll.P.53)
    For there lay The Combs---the set of combs that Della hadworshipped for many months in a shopwindow.(Sll.P174)
    七、用斜体词表示强调。如:
    The snake was a bushmaster---a deadly bushmaster!(Slll.P.65)
    And the snake moved!(Slll.P.98)
    From then on,Wilma's leg got treated four times a day. (Slll.P.77)
    八、用标点符号引号表示强调。如:
    l used to think of it as “your”hospital,now l think of it as“our”hospital.(Slll.P.249)
    表示强调的方法还有不少,超出中学英语教学范围的,限于篇幅,就不再一一列举了。

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