中英双语杂志2001/11/23
 

Schools Take Steps to Counter Youth Obesity

美国学校采取措施对付青少年肥胖症(5)

IN THIS ARTICLE: Many American school children are overweight, but now schools are introducing physical fitness programmes to counter the problem of teenage obesity .----Editor

本文简介:美国许多学龄儿童超重,但现在校方正纷纷开设体格保健课程以对付青少年肥胖症问题。--编者

[25] Take Amanda Bush's school, North Park Elementary. In 1989, only 2 percent of the students could pass a fitness test that included a mile run, situps, sit-and-reach (to measure flexibility), and pull-ups. (The standards differ according to age and gender.) Lincoln Elementary, a school where nearly the entire student population receives federal free lunches, had an even worse showing: No one could pass the fitness tests.

[26] But over the past eight years, as students spent more time in PE with certified instructors who helped them work on specific fitness skills--including social cooperation and teamwork--the scores began to tell a different story.

[27] In 1996, 40 percent at North Park passed the fitness tests. It was even higher at Lincoln: 55 percent. Districtwide, a third of the elementary students met the fitness standards.

[28] The PE specialists attribute their successes to a holistic approach, one that emphasizes not only the physical, but the social skills that children need to work cooperatively. Gradually, PE specialists like Abbie Flanagan, who works full time at Lincoln, have convinced the children that offering each other support, praise, even guidance, is preferable to name-calling. They have come a long, long way, Flanagan says. Gone are street-tough taunts and put-downs. "They tended to be very aggressive," she says. A recent Frisbee-throwing exercise at Lincoln testified to Flanagan's approach. About 30 fourth-graders stood some distance from their partners, practising the four-step exercise involved in accurately slicing a Frisbee above the parched ground.

[29] Compliments like "Good try!" and "Nice one, man!" flew through the air as frequently as the Frisbees. Only one negative comment was audible during 15 minutes of play. A boy chastised himself for a ditched pitch but was quickly soothed by his partner's "That's OK!"

[30] Lisa Font, 9, who demonstrated the Frisbee throw for her classmates, waved happily to a visitor as the class lined up quietly to return to class. She was the incarnation of confidence, this chunky, smiling girl, no star athlete, but a typical child who, years ago, might have been left behind in the old win-lose version of PE. Today, under Flanagan's tutelage, she is very much a winner. Before she marched off, Font quietly raised her fist, smiled, and offered this: "Never give up!"


[25]以阿曼达·布什的学校----北公园小学为例。在1989年,只有2%的学生能通过一项健康测试,该测试包括一英里长跑、仰卧起坐、屈体前伸(测试柔曲性)和引体向上。(标准根据年龄、性别而变化。)林肯小学,这所几乎全体学生都享受联邦政府免费午餐的学校,情况显得更糟:没人能通过测试。

[26]但在过去的八年中,随着学生与持证教员一起对体育投入时间的增加,教员们帮助学生不断提高特定的保健技能----包括社交合作和集体配合,成绩开始发生了变化。

[27]在1996年,北公园小学40%的学生通过了健康测试。林肯小学的比率更高:55%。整个学区有三分之一的小学生达到健康标准。

[28]体育专家们把自己的成就归功于一种完整主义的教学方法,它不仅强调体育技能,而且也强调孩子们在合作配合中所需要的社交技能。一般说来,像林肯小学的专职教员艾比·弗拉纳根这样的体育专家们让孩子们确信,相互帮助、赞扬、甚至指导要比相互辱骂更可取。弗拉纳根说,他们的变化太大、太大了。流氓似的辱骂和轻蔑的言谈已一扫而尽。“他们本来非常爱寻衅闹事,”她说。林肯小学最近的一次投掷飞碟训练证明了弗拉纳根的教学方法。约有30名四年级学生跟自己的配手拉开一定距离,进行把飞碟准确扔过炎热干燥的运动场的四步练习。

[29]“扔得不错!”和“这一下真棒,伙计!”之类的赞扬声像那些飞碟一般,在空中频频飞传。在15分钟的训练过程中,只听到一句消极的话。一名男生责罚自己那糟糕的投掷,但他的配手一句“没关系!”使他很快平静下来。

[30]当全班静静地排好队回教室时,为全班作扔飞碟示范的九岁的莉莎·方特向一位参观者开心地挥挥手。她是自信的化身。这位矮胖的、笑嘻嘻的姑娘并非体育明星,而是位典型的孩子----要在早几年,她也许早已被体育课老一套的胜负思想冷落在一边了。今天,在弗拉纳根的指导下,她是个十足的成功者。在离开之前,方特悄悄举起拳头,微笑着,说了这么一句:“永远不要认输!”




 


 

 


 


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 





 


 



 


 



 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

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