Who is this Santa Claus person?
According to the Encyclopedia
Britannica, Santa Claus started with a real person, Saint Nicholas, a minor
saint from the fourth century:
- Why is Santa characterized as a short, fat and jolly pipe smoker?
- Why does Santa wear such outlandish clothes?
- Why does he ride around in a sleigh? Pulled by reindeer? That lands on
rooftops? So he can climb down the chimney? With a big sack full of toys? Which
he leaves under the tree for good girls and boys?
According to tradition, he was born in the ancient Lycian seaport city of
Patara, and, when young, he traveled to Palestine and Egypt. He became bishop of
Myra soon after returning to Lycia. He was imprisoned during the Roman emperor
Diocletian's persecution of Christians but was released under the rule of
Emperor Constantine the Great and attended the first Council (325) of Nicaea.
After his death he was buried in his church at Myra, and by the sixth century
his shrine there had become well known. In 1087, Italian sailors or merchants
stole his alleged remains from Myra and took them to Bari, Italy; this removal
greatly increased the saint's popularity in Europe, and Bari became one of the
most crowded of all pilgrimage centres. Nicholas' relics remain enshrined in the
11th-century basilica of San Nicola, Bari.
Nicholas' reputation for generosity and kindness gave rise to legends of
miracles he performed for the poor and unhappy. He was reputed to have given
marriage dowries of gold to three girls whom poverty would otherwise have forced
into lives of prostitution, and he restored to life three children who had been
chopped up by a butcher and put in a brine tub. In the Middle Ages, devotion to
Nicholas extended to all parts of Europe. He became the patron saint of Russia
and Greece; of charitable fraternities and guilds; of children, sailors,
unmarried girls, merchants, and pawnbrokers; and of such cities as Fribourg,
Switz., and Moscow. Thousands of European churches were dedicated to him, one as
early as the sixth century, built by the Roman emperor Justinian I, at
Constantinople (now Istanbul). Nicholas' miracles were a favourite subject for
medieval artists and liturgical plays, and his traditional feast day was the
occasion for the ceremonies of the Boy Bishop, a widespread European custom in
which a boy was elected bishop and reigned until Holy Innocents' Day (December
After the Reformation, Nicholas' cult disappeared in all the Protestant
countries of Europe except Holland, where his legend persisted as Sinterklaas (a
Dutch variant of the name Saint Nicholas). Dutch colonists took this tradition
with them to New Amsterdam (now New York City) in the American colonies in the
17th century. Sinterklaas was adopted by the country's English-speaking majority
under the name Santa Claus, and his legend of a kindly old man was united with
old Nordic folktales of a magician who punished naughty children and rewarded
good children with presents.
("Nicholas, SAINT", Britannica CD. Version 97. Encyclopaedia Britannica,
It is amazing but true that the common, popular view of Santa that we all
have today, along with all the crazy things around Santa like the sleigh, the
reindeer and the chimney, all came largely from two publishing events that
occurred in the 1800s and one advertising campaign in this century. Clement
Moore wrote "The Night Before Christmas" in 1822 for his family. It was picked
up by a newspaper, then reprinted in magazines and it spread like wildfire.
Moore admitted authorship in 1838. If you read
the poem you will find that he names the reindeer, invents the sleigh, comes
up with the chimney and the bag of toys, etc. Nearly everyone in America has
been able to recognize or recite this poem since the 1830s.
Then, between 1863 and 1886, Harper's Weekly (a popular magazine of the time)
ran a series of engravings by Thomas Nast. From these images come the concepts
of Santa's workshop, Santa reading letters, Santa checking his list and so on.
Coca-Cola also played a role in the Santa image by running a set of paintings by
Haddon Sundblom in its ads between 1931 to 1964.
The red and white suit came, actually, from the original Saint Nicholas.
Those colors were the colors of the traditional bishop's robes.
See also A
Brief History of Santa for a good set of Santa pictures.
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